Comments by Leading Neuroscientists on Neuropsychoanalysis

NPSA comments

"At long last, psychoanalysts and neuroscientists are together in the same forum, as they were in some manner in Freud’s own person." "Freud's insights on the nature of consciousness are consonant with the most advanced contemporary neuroscientific views" - ANTONIO DAMASIO Neuroscientist, author of 'Descartes Error', 'The Feeling of What Happens', and 'Looking fo Spinoza'.

"Neuropsychoanalysis combines the methods and findings of brain researchers and psychoanalysts to create an integrated and comprehensive understanding of the living mind-brain." - MARK SOLMS, psychoanalyst and neuropsychologist, author of 'The Brain and the Inner World' and 'Clinical Studies in Neuro-psychoanalysis'

“A brilliant, determined, scrupulous and tactful endeavour to approach, in a new way, the oldest question of all – the mysterious relationship of body and mind." "Neuropsychology, like classical neurology, aims to be entirely objective, and its great power comes from just this. But a living creature, and especially a human being is first and last a subject. It is precisely the subject, the living `I,' which is excluded from neurology". "It has been little more than a century since Freud's Project and the beginnings of psychoanalysis and I think it won't be quite that long until the coming of a profound and almost unimaginable union of sorts, between neuroscience and psychoanalysis, between the outer and inner approaches." - OLIVER SACKS, Author of 'The Man Who Mistook his Wife for a Hat', 'Awakenings', 'An Anthropologist on Mars'

"Freud, in his 1895 'Project for a Scientific Psychology', attempted to join the emerging discipline of psychoanalysis with the neuroscience of his time. But that was a hundred years ago, when the neuron had only just been described, and Freud was forced - through lack of pertinent knowledge - to abandon his project. We have had to wait many decades before the sort of data which Freud needed finally became available. Now, these many years later, contemporary neuroscience allows for the resumption of the search for correlations between these two disciplines". - ARNOLD PFEFFER

"The remarkable theoretical implication of these observations [denial in anosognosia] is that memories can indeed be selectively repressed…..Seeing this patient convinced me, for the first time, of the reality of the repression phenomena that form the cornerstone of classical psychoanalytical theory.” - V.S RAMACHANDRAN, neurologist, author of 'Phantoms in the Brain', 'The Emerging Mind', 'A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness'

"Molecular biology will provide a fresh perspective on the study of behavior and the ensuing insights will lead to a new science of the mind, one that is grounded in the rigorous empirical framework of molecular biology yet incorporates the humanistic concepts of psychoanalysis." "Psychoanalysis is still the most coherent and intellectually satisfying view of the mind." - ERIC KANDEL, Author of 'Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, and the New Biology of Mind' and 'In Search of Memory'. Winner of the 2000 Nobel Prize for Medicine

"Freud should be placed in the same category as Darwin, who lived before the discovery of genes...Freud gave us a vision of a mental apparatus. We need to talk about it, develop it, test it… it is not a matter of proving Freud right or wrong, but of finishing the job." -JAAK PANKSEPP, author of 'Affective Neuroscience' and 'Textbook of Biological Psychiatry' (ed.)

"It's conceivable, and in fact seems very likely, that a child could be abused very early in life and develop unconscious emotional memories through the amygdala prior to the point where the temporal lobe memory system has kicked in...We need to understand how unconscious emotional memories are formed, not only because they occur in early childhood, but because emotional memories are created throughout our lives. And it appears that these memories are indelible." -JOSEPH LEDOUX, neuroscientist, author of 'The Emotional Brain' and 'The Synaptic Self'.

"...every psychological theory, apart from what it achieves from the point of view of natural science, must fulfil yet another major requirement. It should explain to us what we are aware of, in the most puzzling fashion, through our 'consciousness' and, since this consciousness knows nothing of what we have so far been assuming - quantities and neurones - it should explain this lack of knowledge to us as well." - SIGMUND FREUD, 1897

"The deficiencies in our description would probably vanish if we were already in a position to replace the psychological terms with physiological or chemical ones...We may expect [physiology and chemistry] to give the most surprising information and we cannot guess what answers it will return in a few dozen years of questions we have put to it. They may be of a kind that will blow away the whole of our artificial structure of hypothesis.” - SIGMUND FREUD, 1920- Beyond the Pleasure Principle.